Reductions in CFC-11 emissions put ozone recovery back on track

first_imgReductions in CFC-11 emissions put ozone recovery back on track Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyA potent ozone-depleting chemical whose emissions unexpectedly spiked in recent years has quickly dropped back to much lower levels, putting the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer back on track, according to a new study by scientists at MIT, the University of Bristol, and other institutions in South Korea, the U.S., Japan, Australia, and Switzerland.The chemical in question is CFC-11, a chlorofluorocarbon that was once commonly used for refrigeration, insulation, and other purposes. When emitted to the atmosphere, CFC-11 can loft into the stratosphere, where the sun’s ultraviolet radiation breaks the chemical down to release chlorine – a noxious chemical that then eats away at ozone, stripping away the Earth’s natural shield against UV rays.CFC-11 and other chlorofluorocarbons are now banned under the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty under which every country agreed to phase out the chemicals’ production and use by 2010. But in 2018, a team of scientists reported a concerning spike in global emissions of the chemical beginning in 2013. In 2019, a second team reported that a significant portion of the emissions could be traced to eastern China, predominately the Shandong and Hebie provinces.Now, in two papers published today in Nature, the same teams report that global annual emissions of CFC-11 into the atmosphere have declined sharply, by about 20,000 U.S. tons, from 2018 to 2019. The researchers traced a substantial fraction of the global emission reductions to the very same regions of eastern China where they had previously reported the original spike. The results are consistent with evidence that the country has taken successful actions to stamp out illegal production of this ozone-depleting chemical.“This is tremendously encouraging,” says Ronald Prinn, the director of the Center for Global Change Science at MIT and a co-author on both papers. “If emissions of CFC-11 had continued to rise or even just leveled off, there would have been a much bigger problem building up. The global monitoring networks really caught this spike in time, and subsequent actions have lowered emissions before they became a real threat to recovery of the ozone layer.”A brief history of the spikeBoth the original spike and subsequent drop in CFC-11 emissions were detected by the researchers using two independent networks.One is a global monitoring network operated by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), comprising about 30 stations. Researchers at each site collect air samples and send them to a central laboratory, where the air is analyzed for CFC-11 and many other trace gases. The weekly measurements, from sites around the world, give an accurate average picture of the chemical species circulating in the global atmosphere.The other network is the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment, or AGAGE, an MIT-led effort funded in part by NASA, with more than a dozen monitoring stations situated on coastal and mountain sites around the world. The AGAGE stations take automated on-site measurements of passing air parcels about every hour, monitoring for more than 50 trace gases, including CFC-11, to provide detailed records of the regional and global atmosphere.In a 2018 Nature report, the researchers analyzed measurements from NOAA and observed that, from 2014 to 2016, global emissions of CFC-11 grew by more than 14,000 U.S. tons a year – a 25 percent increase from emissions between 2002 and 2012. In a subsequent 2019 Nature report, regional measurements taken by AGAGE stations in Hateruma, Japan, and Gosan, South Korea, along with three-dimensional modeling, showed that about half or more of these emissions came from eastern China, primarily from the factory-heavy Shandong and Hebei provinces.Following these 2018 and 2019 reports, the scientists continued to track the chemical through the atmosphere, at both global and regional levels.In the first of the two new Nature papers, they analyze both NOAA and AGAGE global data and report a dramatic turnaround: From 2018 to 2019, CFC-11 annual emissions dropped throughout the global atmosphere by about U.S. 20,000 tons, returning to levels prior to 2012, following the chemical’s 2010 global phaseout.In the second paper, based on AGAGE measurements, the scientists observed that CFC-11 emissions specifically from eastern China hit a peak around 2017. At some point soon afterward, levels began to drop, although the researchers cannot say exactly when the regional turnaround occurred, as the South Korean station sustained typhoon-related damage that resulted in some data gaps. Despite these gaps, the group observed a decline in CFC-11 annual emissions, by about 11,000 U.S. tons from eastern China, through 2019.As the researchers write in the paper, “it seems that any substantial delay in ozone-layer recovery has been avoided, perhaps owing to timely reporting, and subsequent action by industry and government in China.”“Continuous vigilance”However, there is still work to be done. While it appears that CFC-11 emissions from eastern China have declined, indicating that significant illegal production of the chemical there has ceased, these emissions only account for roughly half of the global emissions. Where the remainder could have come from is still unknown.In general, CFC-11 is currently emitted in large amounts through leakages during new production and during subsequent use in refrigeration and manufacture of foams. The chemicals can also leak out from “banks” of old, discarded refrigerators and foams, though at a much slower and more diffuse rate than the rapid regional increase observed in 2013.“The challenge now is to ask, where’s the rest of it coming from?” says Prinn, the TEPCO Professor of Atmospheric Science in MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences. “We will need to expand measurements and modeling to identify new sources, and continue to keep watch. Hopefully, emission levels will continue to drop.”Going forward, the scientists hope to add more stations to the AGAGE network, so that they might identify and quantify other regional sources of CFC-11, particularly in rapidly industrializing parts of the world.“Clearly this story shows that, in order to ensure that countries are adhering to international agreements like the Montreal Protocol, continuous vigilance is required,” Prinn says. “You can’t stop measuring these chemical species and assume the problem is solved.”This research was supported, in part, by NASA and NOAA. /University Release. This material comes from the originating organization and may be of a point-in-time nature, edited for clarity, style and length. View in full here. Why?Well, unlike many news organisations, we have no sponsors, no corporate or ideological interests. We don’t put up a paywall – we believe in free access to information of public interest. Media ownership in Australia is one of the most concentrated in the world (Learn more). Since the trend of consolidation is and has historically been upward, fewer and fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of the mass media in our country. According to independent assessment, about 98% of the media sector is held by three conglomerates. This tendency is not only totally unacceptable, but also to a degree frightening). Learn more hereWe endeavour to provide the community with real-time access to true unfiltered news firsthand from primary sources. It is a bumpy road with all sorties of difficulties. We can only achieve this goal together. Our website is open to any citizen journalists and organizations who want to contribute, publish high-quality insights or send media releases to improve public access to impartial information. You and we have the right to know, learn, read, hear what and how we deem appropriate.Your support is greatly appreciated. All donations are kept completely private and confidential.Thank you in advance!Tags:atmosphere, Australia, China, Earth, Government, Japan, Korean, MIT, NASA, production, Scientists, South Korea, Switzerland, ultraviolet, university, University of Bristollast_img read more

WATCH: Clark County TODAY LIVE • Thursday, August 6, 2020

first_img The Clark County Sheriff’s Office is requesting the public’s help in identifying persons of interest in a shooting that took place last month.Read more Kelly Carroll’s attorney says she may file a wrongful prosecution lawsuit in federal courtRead more Posted by Chris Brown|Thursday, August 6, 2020 |in : NewsUPDATED: Vancouver dropping charges against pet groomer who opened in Phase 1 Clark County Sheriff’s Office requesting assistance in identifying persons of interest in shooting The over 7,000-square-foot facility is home to a physical therapy clinic with an identity all it’s own. It all began when founder and operator, JJ Flentke, decided she ne…Read more AdvertisementThis is placeholder textTags:Clark CountyLatestshare 0 Previous : UPDATED: Vancouver dropping charges against pet groomer who opened in Phase 1 Next : VIDEO: Boomerang Therapy Works rehabilitates community and the bodyAdvertisementThis is placeholder text Public Health issues danger advisory for Vancouver Lake Clark County Public Health is upgrading its advisory at Vancouver Lake to danger after test results revealed elevated levels of cyanotoxins in the water. The cyanobacteri…Read more Posted by Jacob Granneman|Thursday, August 6, 2020 |in : HealthVIDEO: Boomerang Therapy Works rehabilitates community and the body Posted by|Thursday, August 6, 2020 |in : NewsClark County Sheriff's Office requesting assistance in identifying persons of interest in shooting Posted by|Thursday, August 6, 2020 |in : NewsPublic Health issues danger advisory for Vancouver Lake UPDATED: Vancouver dropping charges against pet groomer who opened in Phase 1 VIDEO: Boomerang Therapy Works rehabilitates community and the body WATCH: Clark County TODAY LIVE • Thursday, August 6, 2020Posted by ClarkCountyToday.comDate: Thursday, August 6, 2020in: Newsshare 0 WATCH: Clark County adds 13 COVID-19 cases, subtracts 12 others ; Vancouver drops charges against pet groomer over Phase 1 reopening ; Vancouver Lake closed due to toxic Cyanobacteria bloom ; Evergreen School District celebrates graduation in a very strange year ; Vancouver physical therapist gaining a reputation for treating the body and the mind.last_img read more

The Dakota is coming back as a Wrangler-based Ram

first_img COMMENTSSHARE YOUR THOUGHTS The Rolls-Royce Boat Tail may be the most expensive new car ever advertisement We encourage all readers to share their views on our articles using Facebook commenting Visit our FAQ page for more information. Buy It! Princess Diana’s humble little 1981 Ford Escort is up for auction An engagement gift from Prince Charles, the car is being sold by a Princess Di “superfan” Created with Raphaël 2.1.2Created with Raphaël 2.1.2 The Dodge Dakota MX Warrior  Handout / FCA ‹ Previous Next › Plans for the vehicle were first released during FCA’s product presentation on June 1, at which time it was not clear if it would share a platform with the Jeep pickup.The Ram pickup is most likely going to share the same powertrain as the Jeep pickup as well, which will borrow heavily from the new JL Wrangler. A 3.6-litre V6 and a 2.0-litre turbocharged four-cylinder could find its way into the truck’s engine bay, as well as Jeep’s eight-speed auto or six-speed standard transmission. Four-wheel-drive is definitely on the table as well. PlayThe Rolls-Royce Boat Tail may be the most expensive new car everPlay3 common new car problems (and how to prevent them) | Maintenance Advice | Driving.caPlayFinal 5 Minivan Contenders | Driving.caPlay2021 Volvo XC90 Recharge | Ministry of Interior Affairs | Driving.caPlayThe 2022 Ford F-150 Lightning is a new take on Canada’s fave truck | Driving.caPlayBuying a used Toyota Tundra? Check these 5 things first | Used Truck Advice | Driving.caPlayCanada’s most efficient trucks in 2021 | Driving.caPlay3 ways to make night driving safer and more comfortable | Advice | Driving.caPlayDriving into the Future: Sustainability and Innovation in tomorrow’s cars | virtual panelPlayThese spy shots get us an early glimpse of some future models | RELATED TAGSNews Expect to see the Jeep pickup in 2019 as a 2020 model year vehicle; and expect to have to wait a little longer for the mid-sized Ram. Ram is planning on building a new mid-sized truck based on the new Jeep Wrangler pickup, according to Automotive News.This will be the first time a mid-sized truck will have a Ram badge since the Dodge Dakota, which went out of production in 2011.The pickup will be body-on-frame, just like its Jeep counterpart, and they will be built in the same plant in Toledo, Ohio. Trending in Canada See More Videos Trending Videoslast_img read more

Competitors to describe their thesis in just 3 minutes at Feb. 20 event

first_img Search Enter the terms you wish to search for. We’ve recently redesigned this site and some content may have moved.last_img

What Do Your Customers Want From You?

first_imgShare ReddIt Linkedin E Columnby Elizabeth “E” Slater, In Short Direct MarketingA recognized expert in the fields of direct marketing and sales in the wine marketplace. Slater has taught more wineries and winery associations how to create and improve the effectiveness of their direct marketing programs and to make the most of each customer’s potential than anyone in the wine industry today.Follow E on twitter @esavant and facebook. Advertisement AdvertisementKnowing what your customers want is part and parcel of making your customers happy and ensuring that they will continue to buy from you. Here are some tips on how to engage your customersUse Their NamesNot only will customers remember you if you remember their names and use their names (a couple of times in the conversation) they are also more aware and interested when they hear their names. Try not to overuse the name. Sometimes when I have been on a phone call with a company and the employee has been told to use the customer’s name, they use it every second word, which is way too much and a little irritating.PersonalizeA key way to make customers happy is to make each experience personal. A personalized experience not only makes customers happy, they are also willing to pay more for a personalized experience. Treat each set of customers as individuals with an individual experience.Tell StoriesWhen we tell a story, customers can become a part of that story. Powerful messages about the company are left in their minds through the story. Keep your stories fairly short, so customers don’t lose interest.Involve Your CustomersAsk customers for their ideas or present ideas you have and ask for their input. If you implement a customer’s idea, make sure they are rewarded for their input.Surprise CustomersAn unexpected treat or gift (no matter how small) will please your customers and will get them talking to their friends about how great the company is.Time & Memories Many customers value time well spent and the memories that are created much more than they do discounts. Though in most businesses there is more talk about pricing than there is about what the product will mean to the customer. Start focusing more on the memories that they can make with your products.A tip of the glass from me to you. Home Wine Business Editorial E Column What Do Your Customers Want From You?Wine Business EditorialE ColumnWhat Do Your Customers Want From You?By Elizabeth Slater – February 15, 2017 112 0 Facebook Email Previous articleRich McNell, Regional Sales Manager, California, Cork Supply USANext articleAll Tiers Need to Listen Up! Elizabeth Slater TAGSE ColumnElizabeth SlaterIn Short Direct Marketing Twitter Pinterestlast_img read more

Attorney Attacks Dr. Blythe’s Credibility

first_imgRelatedAttorney Attacks Dr. Blythe’s Credibility By BALFORD HENRY, JIS Reporter & Editor Advertisements FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail KINGSTON — Attorney for the Jamaican Redevelopment Foundation (JRF), Sandra Minott-Phillips raised a number of issues regarding former Minister of Water and Housing. Dr. Karl Blythe’s credibility as a debtor, as the FINSAC Commission of Enquiry resuming hearings Thursday morning (August 4) at the Jamaica Pegasus Hotel, New Kingston. Attorney for Dr. Blythe, Leonard Green, criticized Mrs. Minott-Phillips for insisting on focusing on Dr. Blythe’s record of personal debt, despite his acknowledgement that he owed the debts. Chairman of the Commission, Worrick Bogle, agreed with Mr. Green that since Dr. Blythe did not deny owing the debts, there was no need to continue “flogging a dead horse”. However, Mrs. Minott-Phillips insisted on cross examining the former Minister on his debt record, especially a debt owed to the Workers Bank which ballooned from $900,000 to $5 million in no time “He himself ran up significant debt, for which he has not made any payments, or certainly not made sufficient payment to discharge it,” she said. “He has not only imperiled the properties he provided as security, but also the properties of others who provided security for these debts,” she went on. “I think since what is here being sought from Dr. Blythe is his view of whether debtors were treated fairly or unfairly, then it is certainly relevant to the Commission of Enquiry to establish whether Dr. Blythe conducted himself and his business fairly or unfairly, or whether he behaved in a manner that was deserving of some treatment that he expected in relation to favourability, whereby he could just borrow money and expect that, because of his station, he would not have to repay,” she commented. When Commissioner Bogle again pointed to Dr. Blythe’s acknowledgement of the debts, Mrs. Minott-Phillips suggested that the issue was not whether he owed money, but whether he was a credible witness. “The point is not whether or not he owes the money. That is not in dispute. The point is, is he a witness that the Commission can rely on to establish whether FINSAC or the JRF treated debtors fairly or unfairly, and I am saying his character and his conduct are squarely an issue,” she stated. The enquiry then broke for lunch RelatedAttorney Attacks Dr. Blythe’s Credibility Attorney Attacks Dr. Blythe’s Credibility JusticeAugust 5, 2011 RelatedAttorney Attacks Dr. Blythe’s Credibilitylast_img read more

Kuehne to receive Criminal Law Section’s Selig I. Goldin Award

first_img May 19, 2021 By Jim Ash Senior Editor Top Stories Kuehne to receive Criminal Law Section’s Selig I. Goldin Award Ben KuehneMiami attorney Ben Kuehne, dubbed the “Iron Lawyer” for his courtroom and Iron Man triathlon prowess, is the latest recipient of the Criminal Law Section’s highest honor, the Selig I. Goldin Award.The award is bitter-sweet for Kuehne, who prefers the title “lawyer” with Kuehne Davis Law, P.A. Kuehne said he is especially grateful because he reveres Bar service, and some of the lawyers he considers mentors were past Selig Goldin Award recipients.“I’m really very honored, it is something I never expected,” he said.Kuehne was to have received the award last summer, but the ceremony was postponed when the COVID-19 pandemic forced the Bar’s Annual Meeting to convene virtually. Sadly, former Florida Supreme Court Justice Gerald Kogan, one of Kuehne’s earliest and most influential mentors, was scheduled to introduce Kuehne, but the former justice died March 4 at the age of 87.“Without his mentorship, his guidance, I would not be anywhere close to the lawyer I am,” Kuehne said.However, Kuehne said he is honored that his former law partner, a Criminal Law Section executive council member Neal Sonnett, has agreed to do the honors. Kuehne is scheduled to receive the award at Criminal Law Section executive council meeting on June 11.Criminal Law Section Chair Warren Lindsey calls Kuehne a “champion for justice and respect for the court system.”“Ben Kuehne personifies all of the attributes of an outstanding criminal trial lawyer,” Lindsey said. “While he is always a fierce and effective advocate for his clients, he can disagree without being disagreeable, and always exhibits professionalism and ethics in his interactions with others.”A fixture in South Florida legal circles with a penchant for brightly colored bow ties, Kuehne is one of the state’s most prominent white-collar criminal defense attorneys. Also an election law specialist, Kuehne stepped into the national spotlight in 2000 when he represented former Vice President Al Gore, and the Gore/Lieberman Recount Committees, during the presidential recount.Triple board certified in Appellate Practice, Criminal Appellate Law, and Criminal Trial Law, the 1977 University of Miami law school graduate has served, among many other posts, as a Florida Bar board member and chair of the Criminal Law Section, Appellate Practice Section, and Council of Sections. He is a past president of the Dade County Bar Association and is a founding member of the Florida Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers.Friends and colleagues say Kuehne is a natural choice for the Selig I. Goldin Award. Former Florida Bar President Hank Coxe considers the recognition “long overdue.”“We all have our short list of lawyers, in times of crisis, to whom we turn for wisdom when we need it, but can’t find it,” Coxe said. “Ben Kuehne has always been there — leadership, trust, mentoring, and commitment to the values of this profession. He differs from Quixote in that he has beaten the windmills, and it has made our profession better.”Sonnett says his former partner “richly deserves” the honor.“Ben Kuehne embodies the outstanding characteristics of Selig Goldin — trial excellence, strict adherence to ethics, devotion to the rule of law, and service to the legal profession and The Florida Bar,” Sonnett said. “Ben has devoted much of his career to protecting the rule of law and improving the criminal justice system, and his contributions have been extraordinary.”The award takes its name from former Gainesville attorney and Criminal Law Section executive council member Selig I. Goldin.Before he died of cancer in 1980, the 41-year-old lawyer was known for refusing to turn away clients whose cases were too controversial or who couldn’t pay and was a model of “competence, service and compassion,” according to a Criminal Law Section biography.Hollywood attorney Harvey Sepler, who chairs the Criminal Law Section’s Selig Goldin Committee, said Kuehne exhibits Goldin’s finest qualities. A friend for more than 30 years, Sepler said Kuehne mentored him and many other lawyers, and is the “epitome of professionalism.”“A former chair of the Criminal Law Section, longtime member of The Florida Bar Board of Governors, and advocate for fairness in the criminal justice arena,” Sepler said. “I can’t think of anyone who deserves the Selig Goldin award more than him.”last_img read more

Verizon chief is ‘Go’ on video but ‘No’ on earnings growth

first_img Related Tags Richard Handford Previous ArticleEC green-lights NXP/Freescale dealNext ArticleMexico prepared to slash 700MHz access fees by 90% – report AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInLinkedInShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to MoreAddThisMore 18 SEP 2015 Verizon sorts sensor supremo Richard is the editor of Mobile World Live’s money channel and a contributor to the daily news service. He is an experienced technology and business journalist who previously worked as a freelancer for many publications over the last decade including… Read more Author Verizon shuffles executives Home Verizon chief is ‘Go’ on video but ‘No’ on earnings growth Amazon reels in MGM Go90IoTVerizon Lowell McAdam, Verizon Communications chairman and CEO, proclaimed a bright future ahead with a new mobile video service as well as IoT activities, but admitted that earnings in 2016 may be no better than in 2015.McAdam (pictured), who was speaking at Goldman Sachs’ annual Communacopia Conference, spent time extolling Go90, the mobile-first, advertising-driven video service targeted at millennials that the operator recently soft launched.“Yes, we have about 25,000 customers on it now. We’ve grown the beta testing over time. We’ve gone out with invitations to about five million of the Verizon Wireless customers and we will be adding them onto the platform this month and we expect to go live with it at the end of September,” he said.Later during his conversation with Goldman analyst Brett Feldman, the Verizon chief switched to the subject of profitability. “So I see a plateauing, if you will, between 2015 and 2016 and then I see 2017 we move back into the growth trajectory.”Profitability was impacted by a number of factors, including the changing way subscribers pay for handsets, a shift in wireline financial comparisons following the expected first-half 2016 sale of operations to Frontier Communications, and its push into new areas such as mobile video and IoT.He then referred to a decision made by former Verizon CEO Ivan Seidenberg some years ago: “So it’s a little bit — in chatting with the team — it’s a little bit of our FiOS moment, if you think about it. When Ivan said you know we’ve got to shift the framework of this business off of copper and onto fiber, we are shifting the framework of this business more onto digital media than our traditional services, so that’s why the frameworks change and the comparables are going to be a little difficult for us in 2016.”McAdam also talked up IoT’s contribution. In the first half of the year, Verizon had seen around $320 million of revenue from that area, which for Verizon is  “not a big deal”.“But we are generating by far the largest amount of revenue from Internet of Things of any company in the US,” he claimed.  And future projections from the likes of Cisco show how IoT will be making a bigger contribution over time. “So I think it will be a meaningful line item on the budgets and our results for investors to look at in 2017,” he said.last_img read more

44 year old man detained in Derry

first_img News, Sport and Obituaries on Monday May 24th WhatsApp 44 year old man detained in Derry RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Nine til Noon Show – Listen back to Monday’s Programme Arranmore progress and potential flagged as population grows Facebook Loganair’s new Derry – Liverpool air service takes off from CODA Twitter Facebook Previous articleNews, Sport and Obituaries on Wednesday October 14thNext articlePringle says restrictions should be nationwide as cabinet meets News Highland Important message for people attending LUH’s INR clinic center_img Pinterest WhatsApp Homepage BannerNews Pinterest Google+ Detectives from the PSNI’s Terrorism Investigation Unit have arrested a 44 year old man in the Derry area on suspicion of Failure to Notify Police of Required Information.The man is being questioned at Strand Road under the Counter Terrorism Act 2008. By News Highland – October 14, 2020 Google+ Twitter Community Enhancement Programme open for applicationslast_img read more

Milford Gardai search house after driver tested positive for drugs

first_imgA house has been raided in Donegal after Gardai in Milford last night detected a motorist driving under the influence of drugs.Gardai were on patrol when they stopped the driver who tested positive for the presence of cannabis.A controlled substance was also seized.Subsequently, Gardaí obtained a drugs warrant and a search was carried out at the driver’s home and drug paraphernalia was seized.Gardai are warning people that driving under the influence of illegal drugs is putting their life and that of others in serious danger. Pinterest Homepage BannerNews Facebook Previous articleTerror following “mistaken identity” attackNext articlePolice investigating aggravated burglary in Derry News Highland Arranmore progress and potential flagged as population grows News, Sport and Obituaries on Monday May 24th Important message for people attending LUH’s INR clinic WhatsApp Milford Gardai search house after driver tested positive for drugs WhatsApp Google+center_img Nine til Noon Show – Listen back to Monday’s Programme Twitter Community Enhancement Programme open for applications RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Pinterest Twitter Loganair’s new Derry – Liverpool air service takes off from CODA Google+ By News Highland – February 10, 2020 Facebooklast_img read more